1.Something About Masons' Marks in Various Countries (Transactions, Royal Institute of British Architects, 1868-69, pp. 135-144, by George Godwin, Fellow).
2.Two Letters from George Godwin, F. R. S., and F. S. A., to Sir Henry Ellis, K. H., F. R. S., Secretary, on Certain Marks Discoverable on the Stones of Various Buildings Erected in the Middle Ages (Archaeologia, 1844, vol. xxx., pp. 113-120).
3.In a paper, read at the Institute of British Architects, March 14, 1836, and published in the Architectural Magazine, vol. iii, p. 193 (on the "Institution of Free-Masonry," by George Godwin, architect), the author quotes extensively from the "Parentalia," Pownall and Hopes "Essays," and Dallaways "Discourses," and was evidently deeply imbued with the erroneous teaching which reached its culminating point in the attractive pages of the late Mr Hope.
4.Fallou asserts that the apprentice Steinmetzen, at the conclusion of his term, received a mark, which always contained one right angle or square (Mysterien der Freimaurer, p. 68).
5.Patrick Chalmers, Esq., F.S.A., On the Use of Mason Marks in Scotland (Archaeologia, 1852, vol. xxxiv., pp. 33-36). An intelligent English stonemason recently stated to Mr G. W. Speth, "We choose a mark, and then if on our travels we find that some other mason uses a similar one, we alter ours in some slight particular."
6.E. Fitzgerald, architect, On Ancient Mason Marks at Youghal and Elsewhere ; and the Secret Language of the Craftsmen of the Middle Ages in Ireland (Kilkenny Archaeological Society, vol. ii., new series, p. 67).
7.Lyon, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, pp. 68, 69. Cf. ante, pp. 434, 436.
8.J. A. Smith, M. D. (Sec. Soc. Antiq. Scot.), Exhibition of Mason Marks, Copied from Melrose Abbey, Dryburgh, Jedburgh, etc. (Proceedings, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1863, vol. iv., p. 548).
9.The Rev. A. F. A. Woodford is my authority for this statement. It is to be regretted that Mr Shaws contemplated work, "Historical Masonry," the publication of which was announced in the Freemasons' Magazine of April 18, 1868 (to contain 5700 Masons'marks), has never seen the light.
10.Dr J. A. Smith.
11.Didron, Godwin, and Papworth.
12."Sur la véritable signification des signes qu'on voit Gravés sur les anciens Monuments du Portugal." This memoir was not printed in the "Sessional Papers," Royal Institute of British Architects, but has been sufficiently summarised by Mr Godwin (Transactions, Royal Institute of British Architects, 1868-69, p. 139).
13.Favyn, Le Théâtre d'honneur, Paris, 1623 (Dictionary of Architecture-Marks).
14.Howff, houff, or hoif, a haunt, a place of frequent resort (Jamiesons Scottish Dictionary).
15.A. Jervise, Memorials of Angus and the Mearns, 1861, pp. 193, 195-197. "Although these marks are to be seen in different parts of the country, perhaps no single place contains so many and such oddly designed specimens as the Howff of Dundee" (Ibid., p. 197).
16.The Statutes of the Bakers of Rheims, 1681 (XVII.), order "that every baker shall have his different mark in perpetuity to mark his bread " (Archives Législatives de la ville de Rheims, tom. ii., pt. ii. Collection de Documents Inédits sur l'Histoire de France). The Old Usages of Worcester (of the fourteenth century) require "that euerych bakere habbe hys seal y-knowe vpon hys loff;" and the Ordinances of the same city, temp. Edw. IV. (1467), "that euery tyller sett his propre marke vppon his tyle" (Smith, English Gilds, pp. 355, 399 ; see ante, pp. 149, 192).
17.Statutes of the Realm, Temp. Incert., vol. i., pp. 203, 211.
18.37 Edw. III., c. vii. See 2 Henry VI., c. xvii. (1423), where it is enjoined that in places where there is no touch, the goldsmith shall set his mark or sign.
19.13 Rich. IL, stat. I., o. xi.
20.Sanz ceoqilmettamr son signe: 23 Hen. VI., c, iii. Similarly in 1467, by the 7 Edw. IV., c. i., it was ordered that no worsted weaver of Norfolk should make worsted, 11 withoute he sette therappon bis owen woven mare." By the same statute the wardens of this craft, if they found the worsteds well and lawfully made, " were also required to affix a II mark or token " (signe ou token).
21.17 Edw. IV., c. i.
22.4 Hen. VII., c. ii.
23.7 Hen. VII., c. iii.
24.19 Hen. VII., c. vi.
25.23 Hen. VIII., c. iv. I am informed that in the city of London to this day the work of individual coopers can be distinguished by their marks. See ante, pp. 90, 146, 149, 192.
26.Riley, Memorials of London, pp. 361, 570, 626.
27.Cf. Runic Inscriptions from Carthage (Archaeologia, vol. xxx., pl. iii.); and Von Hammer, Ancient Alphabets Explained, 1806, pp. 12, 24, 27, 32, 33, 45, 65, and 69. In a plate illustrative of Moors Hindu Pantheon (14), Mahãdeva (or Çiva) is represented with an emblem of this form in his right hand.
28.On Geometrical and other Symbols (Builder, June 6, 1863).
29.Early History of Freemasonry, p. 357.
30.Ouseley, Travels in Various Countries of the East, 1823, pl. lxxxii.; W. T. Creed, Masons' Marks from Carlisle Abbey (Transactions, Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 1880).
31.This figure is to be found in the alphabet of Philaos, the philosopher, who, according to Von Hammer (pp. 7, 37), "invented miraculous fumigations, marvellous compounds, talismans, and astrological tables. He also constructed the treasure chambers in the pyramids?"
32.Archaeologia, vol. xxxiv., pl. iii. (Chalmers).
33.Kilkenny Archaeological Society, vol. ii., new series, p. 67 (Fitzgerald).
34.Tome ii., 1845, p. 250 (41-47) ; tome iii., p. 31, Signes Lapidaries (48-50).
35.Archaeologia, vol. xxx., pl. x. (Godwin).
36.See Transactions, Royal Institute of British Architects, 1868-69 (Plate of Marks).
37.3 Ibid., p. 136. See also Moors Hindu Pantheon, pl. ii. ; Fort, The Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry, pp. 238, 326 ; and King, The Gnostics and their Remains, pl, xi., fig. 5, and pl. Xiii. A, fig. 6.
38.J. Collingwood Bruce, The Roman Wall, 1867, p. 83.
39.Lapidarium Septentrionale (published by the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne), 1875, p. 39.
40.The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon, 2nd edit., 1875, p. 183.
41.Bruce, The Roman Wall, 1867, p. 335.
42.Archaeologia, vol.'?xxiv., pl. iv. (Chalmers).
43.Ante, chap. viii. ("Lodge of Aberdeen," No. 34).
44.Artistes du Moyen Age : Sceaux et Marques des Architectes de la Cathedrale de Strasbourg (71-73), tome viii., p. 187. "Sur le premier de ces trois Sceaux (71) la marque se compose de la Croix, toujours placée verticalement au milieu de l'ecu, et de l'èquerre posèe au bas, de telle manière que la branche courte est tournée vers le haut" (Ibid., tome v., 1846, p. 272-Monogrammes Écussones des Architectes Allemands74).
45.Lyon, History of the Lodge of Edinburgh, plate facing p. 67, fig. 3.
46.Cf. ibid., p. 55, and plates of marks (St Giles and Mother Kflwinning).
47.Life of Thomas Telford, 1867, p. 116. In 1786, Telford, writing from Portsmouth, " states that he is taking great interest in Freemasonry, and is about to have a lodge-room at the George Inn, fitted up after his plans and under his direction " (1bid., p. 129).
48.Von Hammer, The Alphabets of the Seven Planets, sec. v., pp. 10, 51.
49.Craft Customs of the Ancient Stonehewers, trans. by G. W. Speth (Masonic Monthly, July 1882).
50.C. L. Stieglitz, Uber die Kirche der Heiligen Kunigunde, Leipzig, 1829, appendix iii.
51.Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pl. ii.
52.Travels in Various Countries of the East, 1823, pl. lxxxii.
53.Dr Barlow, Symbolism in Reference to Art (Transactions, Royal Institute of British Architects, 1859-60, p. 97); King, The Gnostics and their Remains, p. 176.
54.Fort, The Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry, p. 278.
55.James Finn, Byways in Palestine, 1868, Appendix A, pp. 453, 454 (101-103).
56.B. F. Burton, The Land of Midian, 1879, vol. i., p. 320; vol. ii., p. 156.
57.W. F. A. Ainsworth, Travels and Researches in Asia Minor, etc., 1842, vol. ii., p. 167.
58.Transactions, Royal Institute of British Architects, 1868-69, pp. 135-144 (111-116).
59.Selah Merrill, East of the Jordan, 1881, pp. 55, 151.
60.Voyage en Egypte, etc., 1830-36, Paris, pl. lxxxviii.-xci. Cf. also Lepsius, Denkmäler ; and S. Birch, D.C.L., etc., History of Ancient Pottery, edit. 1873, pp. 9-14, etc.
61.Seroux d'Agincourt, Rec. de Fragmens, pp. 82-88 ; Smith, Dictionary of Antiquitieslater.
62.Wellbeloved, Eburacum ; or, York under the Romans<, pp. 118, 121. See also Smith, Dictionary of Antiquities, s.v. Fictile. Many inscriptions on Roman tiles and pottery are given by Dr Brich in the appendix to his work.
63.W. Hepworth Dixon, "Underground Jerusalem," Gentlemans Magazine, October 1876.
64."On the east wall, at the very base, Captain Warren discovered stones with ancient Hebrew letters in red paint, and these have been thought by some to show that the masonry must of necessity be the work of Solomon. This character was, however, in common use as late as the time of Herod, and the discovery only serves to show that the wall is not later than Jewish times" (Lieutenant C. R. Conder, "The High Sanctuary of Jerasalem," Good Words, October 1881). Captain Warrens excavations (referred to by Mr Hepworth Dixon) were carried out during the years 1867-69. Lieutenant Conder was his successor in Palestine, and continued occasional researches during the years 1873-75.
65.Gentlemans Magazine, October 1876, p. 491.
66.Cited in Humboldts Researches, vol. i., p. 154.
67.Ancient Masons' Marks (Freemasons' Quarterly Magazine, 1851, p. 450; 1852, p. 316).
Reprinted from Chapter ix., The History of freemasonry, Its Antiquities, Symbols, Constitutions, Customs, Etc. ... Derived from Official Sources. Robert Freke Gould. vol 1. Wm. Smith, Engl. [engraving] London : Thomas C. Jack, 45 Ludgate Hill, 1883. pp. 455-66.